Inter-comparison of energy balance and hydrological models for land surface energy flux estimation over a whole river catchment
Summary: The study compared evapotranspiration (ET) modelled by two remote sensing models and one hydrological model in a river catchment in Denmark. The results show that the spatial patterns of ET produced by the remote sensing models are more similar to each other than to the fluxes produced by the hydrological model. This indicates potential benefits to the hydrological modelling community from integrating spatial information derived through remote sensing methodology into the hydrological models.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 2017-2036, doi:10.5194/hess-19-2017-2015, 2015
Hydrological drought types in cold climates: quantitative analysis of causing factors and qualitative survey of impacts
Summary: Hydrological drought types in cold climates have complex causing factors and impacts. In Austria and Norway, a lack of snowmelt is mainly related to below-normal winter precipitation, and a lack of glaciermelt is mainly related to below-normal summer temperature. These and other hydrological drought types impacted hydropower production, water supply, and agriculture in Europe and the US in the recent and far past. For selected drought events in Norway impacts could be coupled to causing factors.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1993-2016, doi:10.5194/hess-19-1993-2015, 2015
Effects of snow ratio on annual runoff within the Budyko framework
Summary: 1. Catchments with higher snow ratio tend to have larger runoff index. 2. A modified Budyko method is proposed to illustrate the snow effect on runoff. 3. Snow ratio change has a significant contribution to runoff change, according to historical observations and projected future climate scenarios, especially in northwestern mountainous and northern high-latitude areas of China.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1977-1992, doi:10.5194/hess-19-1977-2015, 2015
Estimation of temporal and spatial variations in groundwater recharge in unconfined sand aquifers using Scots pine inventories
Summary: We present a novel simulation method for estimating spatially distributed and transient groundwater recharge in unconfined sandy aquifers. The approach uses field data for the most important parameters affecting groundwater recharge and accounts for parameter uncertainty. The results show that tree canopy cover is the most important factor in controlling groundwater recharge at our study area. Tree canopy is thinned by forestry, which may lead to a significant increase of groundwater recharge.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1961-1976, doi:10.5194/hess-19-1961-2015, 2015
Swath-altimetry measurements of the main stem Amazon River: measurement errors and hydraulic implications
Summary: We use a virtual mission analysis on a ca. 260km reach of the central Amazon River to assess the hydraulic implications of potential measurement errors in swath-altimetry imagery from the forthcoming Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission. We estimated water surface slope from imagery of water heights and then derived channel discharge. Errors in estimated discharge were lowest when using longer reach lengths and channel cross-sectional averaging to estimate water slopes.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1943-1959, doi:10.5194/hess-19-1943-2015, 2015
Hydrological recurrence as a measure for large river basin classification and process understanding
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1919-1942, doi:10.5194/hess-19-1919-2015, 2015
Why is the Arkavathy River drying? A multiple-hypothesis approach in a data-scarce region
Summary: The paper asks why the Arkavathy River in southern India is drying. The study results indicate that anthropogenic drivers like groundwater pumping, eucalyptus plantations and channel fragmentation are much more likely to have caused the decline than changing climate. The multiple-hypothesis approach presents a systematic way of quantifying the relative contributions of different drivers, contributing to the policy debate and prioritizing new scientific research.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1905-1917, doi:10.5194/hess-19-1905-2015, 2015
Spatial sensitivity analysis of snow cover data in a distributed rainfall-runoff model
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1887-1904, doi:10.5194/hess-19-1887-2015, 2015
Detecting groundwater discharge dynamics from point-to-catchment scale in a lowland stream: combining hydraulic and tracer methods
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1871-1886, doi:10.5194/hess-19-1871-2015, 2015
Gravitational and capillary soil moisture dynamics for distributed hydrologic models
Summary: Using two sites with different climates, we show that a 1-pixel version of a distributed hydrologic model that uses a single soil layer with a novel dual-pore structure and employs linear parameterization for infiltration and other fluxes and has comparable performance to a benchmark detailed soil water physics solver in capturing the essential local-scale soil moisture dynamics.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1857-1869, doi:10.5194/hess-19-1857-2015, 2015
Erosion processes in black marl soils at the millimetre scale: preliminary insights from an analogous model
Summary: High-resolution three-dimensional point clouds are used to analyse erosion processes at the millimetre scale. The processes analysed here play a role in the closure of cracks. We demonstrated how micro-scale infiltration can influence the degradation of soil surface by inducing downward mass movements that are not reversible. This development will aid in designing future experiments to analyse processes such as swelling, crack closure, micro-landslides, etc.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1849-1855, doi:10.5194/hess-19-1849-2015, 2015
Inter-comparison of statistical downscaling methods for projection of extreme precipitation in Europe
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1827-1847, doi:10.5194/hess-19-1827-2015, 2015
Diagnostic calibration of a hydrological model in a mountain area by hydrograph partitioning
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1807-1826, doi:10.5194/hess-19-1807-2015, 2015
Stochastic bias correction of dynamically downscaled precipitation fields for Germany through Copula-based integration of gridded observation data
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1787-1806, doi:10.5194/hess-19-1787-2015, 2015
Characteristics and controls of variability in soil moisture and groundwater in a headwater catchment
Summary: River flows depend not only on how much water is in a catchment, but also on where the water is stored, which changes over time. We monitored streamflow, soil moisture, and groundwater levels in a NZ catchment, to find out what controls water storage and variability. We found that the catchment had a summer mode where water storage is controlled by near-surface interactions of water with soils and vegetation, and a winter mode where water storage is controlled by deeper groundwater movement.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1767-1786, doi:10.5194/hess-19-1767-2015, 2015
Storm type effects on super Clausius–Clapeyron scaling of intense rainstorm properties with air temperature
Summary: We present an empirical study of the rates of increase in precipitation intensity with air temperature using high-resolution 10 min precipitation records in Switzerland. We estimated the scaling rates for lightning (convective) and non-lightning event subsets and show that scaling rates are between 7 and 14%/C for convective rain and that mixing of storm types exaggerates the relations to air temperature. Doubled CC rates reported by other studies are an exception in our data set.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1753-1766, doi:10.5194/hess-19-1753-2015, 2015
Uncertainty reduction and parameter estimation of a distributed hydrological model with ground and remote-sensing data
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1727-1751, doi:10.5194/hess-19-1727-2015, 2015
Testing gridded land precipitation data and precipitation and runoff reanalyses (1982–2010) between 45° S and 45° N with normalised difference vegetation index data
Summary: The study evaluates annual precipitation (largely rainfall) amounts for the tropics and subtropics; precipitation was obtained from ground observations, satellite observations and numerical weather forecasting models. - Annual precipitation amounts from ground and satellite observations were the most realistic. - Newer weather forecasting models better predicted annual precipitation than older models. - Weather forecasting models predicted inaccurate precipitation amounts for Africa.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1713-1725, doi:10.5194/hess-19-1713-2015, 2015
Hydrological drought forecasting and skill assessment for the Limpopo River basin, southern Africa
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1695-1711, doi:10.5194/hess-19-1695-2015, 2015
Integrated assessment of the impact of climate and land use changes on groundwater quantity and quality in the Mancha Oriental system (Spain)
Summary: This study presents a modeling framework for estimating potential climate and land use change impacts for the 21st century in the Mancha Oriental aquifer. A watershed agriculturally based hydrological model (SWAT) was sequentially coupled with a groundwater flow model in MODFLOW and a groundwater mass-transport model in MT3DMS for groundwater concentrations. Future projections preview a decrease in groundwater recharge, affecting groundwater quantity, quality and interaction with the Jucar River
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1677-1693, doi:10.5194/hess-19-1677-2015, 2015