Seasonal and inter-annual features of ET
were analyzed over four periods. A normalization method was adopted to exclude the effects of potential evapotranspiration and soil water stress on ET
. During the land degradation process, when natural vegetation (including leaves and branches), sand dunes, dry sand layers, and BSCs were all bulldozed, ET
was observed to increase at a mild rate. In a vegetation rehabilitation process with sufficient groundwater, ET
also increased at a faster rate.