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Hydrology and Earth System Sciences An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
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Volume 18, issue 12 | Copyright

Special issue: Predictions under change: water, earth, and biota in the anthropocene...

Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 5025-5040, 2014
© Author(s) 2014. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Research article 11 Dec 2014

Research article | 11 Dec 2014

A virtual water network of the Roman world

B. J. Dermody1, R. P. H. van Beek2, E. Meeks3, K. Klein Goldewijk1,4, W. Scheidel5, Y. van der Velde6, M. F. P. Bierkens2, M. J. Wassen1, and S. C. Dekker1 B. J. Dermody et al.
  • 1Utrecht University, Department of Environmental Sciences, Copernicus Institute, Utrecht, the Netherlands
  • 2Utrecht University, Department of Physical Geography, Utrecht, the Netherlands
  • 3Stanford University Library, Palo Alto, USA
  • 4Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, De Bilt, the Netherlands
  • 5Stanford University, Department of Classics, Palo Alto, USA
  • 6Wageningen University, Department of soil, geography and landscape, Wageningen, the Netherlands

Abstract. The Romans were perhaps the most impressive exponents of water resource management in preindustrial times with irrigation and virtual water trade facilitating unprecedented urbanization and socioeconomic stability for hundreds of years in a region of highly variable climate. To understand Roman water resource management in response to urbanization and climate variability, a Virtual Water Network of the Roman World was developed. Using this network we find that irrigation and virtual water trade increased Roman resilience to interannual climate variability. However, urbanization arising from virtual water trade likely pushed the Empire closer to the boundary of its water resources, led to an increase in import costs, and eroded its resilience to climate variability in the long term. In addition to improving our understanding of Roman water resource management, our cost–distance-based analysis illuminates how increases in import costs arising from climatic and population pressures are likely to be distributed in the future global virtual water network.

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Short summary
Our virtual water network of the Roman World shows that virtual water trade and irrigation provided the Romans with resilience to interannual climate variability. Virtual water trade enabled the Romans to meet food demands from regions with a surplus. Irrigation provided stable water supplies for agriculture, particularly in large river catchments. However, virtual water trade also stimulated urbanization and population growth, which eroded Roman resilience to climate variability over time.
Our virtual water network of the Roman World shows that virtual water trade and irrigation...