Journal cover Journal topic
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
Journal topic

Journal metrics

Journal metrics

  • IF value: 4.936 IF 4.936
  • IF 5-year value: 5.615 IF 5-year
    5.615
  • CiteScore value: 4.94 CiteScore
    4.94
  • SNIP value: 1.612 SNIP 1.612
  • IPP value: 4.70 IPP 4.70
  • SJR value: 2.134 SJR 2.134
  • Scimago H <br class='hide-on-tablet hide-on-mobile'>index value: 107 Scimago H
    index 107
  • h5-index value: 63 h5-index 63
Volume 19, issue 3 | Copyright
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1487-1500, 2015
https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-19-1487-2015
© Author(s) 2015. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Research article 24 Mar 2015

Research article | 24 Mar 2015

Identifying water mass depletion in northern Iraq observed by GRACE

G. Mulder1, T. N. Olsthoorn1, D. A. M. A. Al-Manmi2, E. J. O. Schrama1, and E. H. Smidt1 G. Mulder et al.
  • 1Delft University of Technology, Delft, the Netherlands
  • 2University of Sulaimani, Department of Geology, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq

Abstract. Observations acquired by Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission indicate a mass loss of 146 ± 6 mm equivalent water height (EWH) in northern Iraq between 2007 and 2009. These data are used as an independent validation of lake mass variations and a rainfall-runoff model, which is based on local geology and climate conditions. Model inputs are precipitation from Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) observations, and climatic parameters from Global Land Data Assimilation Systems (GLDAS) model parameters. The model is calibrated with observed river discharge and includes a representation of the karstified aquifers in the region to improve model realism. Lake mass variations were derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) in combination with satellite altimetry and some in situ data. Our rainfall–runoff model confirms that northern Iraq suffered a drought between 2007 and 2009 and captures the annual cycle and longer trend of the observed GRACE data. The total mass depletion seen by GRACE between 2007 and 2009 is mainly explained by a lake mass depletion of 75 ± 3 mm EWH and a natural groundwater depletion of 39 ± 8 mm EWH. Our findings indicate that anthropogenic groundwater extraction has a minor influence in this region, while a decline in lake mass and natural depletion of groundwater play a key role.

Publications Copernicus
Download
Short summary
From 2007 to 2009, northern Iraq suffered a severe drought and GRACE satellite observations indicate a water loss of about 146mm equivalent water height (EWH) in the same period. To identify the main causes of this water loss, we developed a model based on geology, remote sensing and stream flow data. Our findings indicate that anthropogenic groundwater extraction has a minor influence in this region, while a decline in lake mass and natural depletion of groundwater play a key role.
From 2007 to 2009, northern Iraq suffered a severe drought and GRACE satellite observations...
Citation
Share