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Volume 19, issue 6 | Copyright

Special issue: Floods and their changes in historical times – a European...

Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 2673-2684, 2015
© Author(s) 2015. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Research article 09 Jun 2015

Research article | 09 Jun 2015

Flooding in river mouths: human caused or natural events? Five centuries of flooding events in the SW Netherlands, 1500–2000

A. M. J. de Kraker
Related subject area
Subject: Coasts and Estuaries | Techniques and Approaches: Instruments and observation techniques
Analysis of data characterizing tide and current fluxes in coastal basins
Elvira Armenio, Francesca De Serio, and Michele Mossa
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 3441-3454,,, 2017
Assessing land–ocean connectivity via submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) in the Ria Formosa Lagoon (Portugal): combining radon measurements and stable isotope hydrology
Carlos Rocha, Cristina Veiga-Pires, Jan Scholten, Kay Knoeller, Darren R. Gröcke, Liliana Carvalho, Jaime Anibal, and Jean Wilson
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 3077-3098,,, 2016
Can mussels be used as sentinel organisms for characterization of pollution in urban water systems?
Elke S. Reichwaldt and Anas Ghadouani
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 2679-2689,,, 2016
Turbidity in the fluvial Gironde Estuary (southwest France) based on 10-year continuous monitoring: sensitivity to hydrological conditions
I. Jalón-Rojas, S. Schmidt, and A. Sottolichio
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 2805-2819,,, 2015
Determining slack tide with a GPS receiver on an anchored buoy
M. Valk, H. H. G. Savenije, C. C. J. M. Tiberius, and W. M. J. Luxemburg
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 2599-2613,,, 2014
Cited articles
Baart, F., Bakker, M. A. J., van Dongeren, A., den Heijer, C., van Heteren, S., Smit, M. W. J., van Koningsveld, M., and Pool, A.: Using 18th century storm-surge data from the Dutch Coast to improve the confidence in flood-risk estimates, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 2791–2801,, 2011.
Baeteman, C.: History of research and state of the art of the Holocene depositional history of the Belgian coastal plain, in: Landscapes or Seascapes? The history of the coastal environment in the North Sea area reconsidered, Corn Publication Series, Comparative Rural History of the North Sea Area, edited by: Thoen, E., Borger, G. J., de Kraker, A. M. J., Soens, T., Tys, D., Vervaet, L., and Weerts, H., 13 Brepols, Gent, 11–30, 2013.
Borger, G. J.: Draining-digging-dredging; the creation of a new landscape in the peat areas of the Low Countries, in: Fens and bogs in the Netherlands: vegetation, history, nutrient dynamics and conservation, edited by: Verhoeven, J. T. A., Geobotany, 18, 131–171, 1992.
Bosch, T.: Changing societies produce changing rivers, Managing the Rhine in Germany and Holland in a changing Environment, 1770–1850, in: A History of Water, Series II Volume 2: Rivers and Society: From Early Civilizations to Modern Times, edited by: Tvedt, T. and Coopey, R., I. B. Tauris, London, New York, 263–286, 2010.
Brázdil, R., Kundzewicz, Z. W., Benito, G., Demarée, G., Macdonald, N., and Roald, L. A.: Historical floods in Europe in the Past Millennium, in: Changes in Flood Risk in Europe, IAHS Special Publication 10, edited by: Kundezwicz, Z. W., IAHS Press and CRC Press/Balkema, Wallingford, 121–166, 2012.
Publications Copernicus
Special issue
Short summary
Natural floodings caused by storm floods also have important human components determining how disastrous they could be. Man-made floodings during warfare were only successful if natural conditions and factors were fully used. Strategic floodings during the 16th-17th centuries dramatically changed landscapes, from which valueble lessons were learnt to perfect this strategy in the 18th and 19th centuries.
Natural floodings caused by storm floods also have important human components determining how...