Journal cover Journal topic
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 515-531, 2017
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research article
26 Jan 2017
Hydrodynamics of pedestrians' instability in floodwaters
Chiara Arrighi1,*, Hocine Oumeraci2, and Fabio Castelli1 1Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Florence, Via di S. Marta 3, 50139 Firenze, Italy
2Leichtweiß-Institute for Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources, TU Braunschweig, Beethovenstrasse 51a, 38106 Braunschweig, Germany
* Invited contribution by C. Arrighi, recipient of the EGU Outstanding Student Poster (OSP) Award 2015.
Abstract. People's safety is the first objective to be fulfilled by flood risk mitigation measures, and according to existing reports on the causes of casualties, most of the fatalities are due to inappropriate behaviour such as walking or driving in floodwaters. Currently available experimental data on people instability in floodwaters suffer from a large dispersion primarily depending on the large variability of the physical characteristics of the subjects. This paper introduces a dimensionless mobility parameter θP for people partly immersed in flood flows, which accounts for both flood and subject characteristics. The parameter θP is capable of identifying a unique threshold of instability depending on a Froude number, thus reducing the scatter of existing experimental data. Moreover, a three-dimensional (3-D) numerical model describing the detailed geometry of a human body and reproducing a selection of critical pairs of water depth and velocity is presented. The numerical results in terms of hydrodynamic forces and force coefficients are analysed and discussed. Both the mobility parameter θP and the numerical results hint at the crucial role of the Froude number and relative submergence as the most relevant dimensionless numbers to interpret the loss of stability. Finally, the mobility parameter θP is compared with an analogous dimensionless parameter for vehicles' instability in floodwaters, providing a new contribution to support flood risk management and educating people.

Citation: Arrighi, C., Oumeraci, H., and Castelli, F.: Hydrodynamics of pedestrians' instability in floodwaters, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 515-531,, 2017.
Publications Copernicus
Short summary
In developed countries, the majority of fatalities during floods occurs as a consequence of inappropriate high-risk behaviour such as walking or driving in floodwaters. This work addresses pedestrians' instability in floodwaters. It analyses both the contribution of flood and human physical characteristics in the loss of stability highlighting the key role of subject height (submergence) and flow regime. The method consists of a re-analysis of experiments and numerical modelling.
In developed countries, the majority of fatalities during floods occurs as a consequence of...