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Volume 22, issue 3 | Copyright
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 1917-1929, 2018
https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-22-1917-2018
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Research article 20 Mar 2018

Research article | 20 Mar 2018

Active heat pulse sensing of 3-D-flow fields in streambeds

Eddie W. Banks1, Margaret A. Shanafield1, Saskia Noorduijn1, James McCallum1, Jörg Lewandowski2,3, and Okke Batelaan1 Eddie W. Banks et al.
  • 1National Centre for Groundwater Research and Training and the College of Science and Engineering, Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
  • 2Department Ecohydrology, IGB, Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Berlin, Germany
  • 3Geography Department, Humboldt University of Berlin, Berlin, Germany

Abstract. Profiles of temperature time series are commonly used to determine hyporheic flow patterns and hydraulic dynamics in the streambed sediments. Although hyporheic flows are 3-D, past research has focused on determining the magnitude of the vertical flow component and how this varies spatially. This study used a portable 56-sensor, 3-D temperature array with three heat pulse sources to measure the flow direction and magnitude up to 200mm below the water–sediment interface. Short, 1min heat pulses were injected at one of the three heat sources and the temperature response was monitored over a period of 30min. Breakthrough curves from each of the sensors were analysed using a heat transport equation. Parameter estimation and uncertainty analysis was undertaken using the differential evolution adaptive metropolis (DREAM) algorithm, an adaption of the Markov chain Monte Carlo method, to estimate the flux and its orientation. Measurements were conducted in the field and in a sand tank under an extensive range of controlled hydraulic conditions to validate the method. The use of short-duration heat pulses provided a rapid, accurate assessment technique for determining dynamic and multi-directional flow patterns in the hyporheic zone and is a basis for improved understanding of biogeochemical processes at the water–streambed interface.

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This study used a portable 56-sensor, 3-D temperature array with three heat pulse sources to measure the flow direction and magnitude below the water–sediment interface. Breakthrough curves from each of the sensors were analyzed using a heat transport equation. The use of short-duration heat pulses provided a rapid, accurate assessment technique for determining dynamic and multi-directional flow patterns in the hyporheic zone and is a basis for improved understanding of biogeochemical processes.
This study used a portable 56-sensor, 3-D temperature array with three heat pulse sources to...
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