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Hydrology and Earth System Sciences An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
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HESS | Articles | Volume 22, issue 3
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 1917–1929, 2018
https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-22-1917-2018
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 1917–1929, 2018
https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-22-1917-2018
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Research article 20 Mar 2018

Research article | 20 Mar 2018

Active heat pulse sensing of 3-D-flow fields in streambeds

Eddie W. Banks et al.
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Abu-Hamdeh, N. H.: Thermal properties of soils as affected by density and water content, Biosyst. Eng., 86, 97–102, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1537-5110(03)00112-0, 2003. 
Anderson, M. P.: Heat as a ground water tracer, Ground Water, 43, 951–968, 2005. 
Angermann, L., Krause, S., and Lewandowski, J.: Application of heat pulse injections for investigating shallow hyporheic flow in a lowland river, Water Resour. Res., 48, W00P02, https://doi.org/10.1029/2012WR012564, 2012a. 
Angermann, L., Lewandowski, J., Fleckenstein, J. H., and Nützmann, G.: A 3D analysis algorithm to improve interpretation of heat pulse sensor results for the determination of small-scale flow directions and velocities in the hyporheic zone, J. Hydrol., 475, 1–11, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2012.06.050, 2012b. 
Bakker, M., Caljé, R., Schaars, F., van der Made, K.-J., and de Haas, S.: An active heat tracer experiment to determine groundwater velocities using fiber optic cables installed with direct push equipment, Water Resour. Res., 51, 2760–2772, https://doi.org/10.1002/2014WR016632, 2015. 
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This study used a portable 56-sensor, 3-D temperature array with three heat pulse sources to measure the flow direction and magnitude below the water–sediment interface. Breakthrough curves from each of the sensors were analyzed using a heat transport equation. The use of short-duration heat pulses provided a rapid, accurate assessment technique for determining dynamic and multi-directional flow patterns in the hyporheic zone and is a basis for improved understanding of biogeochemical processes.
This study used a portable 56-sensor, 3-D temperature array with three heat pulse sources to...
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