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Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 3245-3259, 2018
https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-22-3245-2018
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research article
11 Jun 2018
Grey water footprint reduction in irrigated crop production: effect of nitrogen application rate, nitrogen form, tillage practice and irrigation strategy
Abebe D. Chukalla1, Maarten S. Krol1, and Arjen Y. Hoekstra1,2 1Twente Water Centre, University of Twente, Enschede, the Netherlands
2Institute of Water Policy, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, Singapore
Abstract. Grey water footprint (WF) reduction is essential given the increasing water pollution associated with food production and the limited assimilation capacity of fresh water. Fertilizer application can contribute significantly to the grey WF as a result of nutrient leaching to groundwater and runoff to streams. The objective of this study is to explore the effect of the nitrogen application rate (from 25 to 300 kg N ha−1), nitrogen form (inorganic N or manure N), tillage practice (conventional or no-tillage) and irrigation strategy (full or deficit irrigation) on the nitrogen load to groundwater and surface water, crop yield and the N-related grey water footprint of crop production by a systematic model-based assessment. As a case study, we consider irrigated maize grown in Spain on loam soil in a semi-arid environment, whereby we simulate the 20-year period 1993–2012. The water and nitrogen balances of the soil and plant growth at the field scale were simulated with the Agricultural Policy Environmental eXtender (APEX) model. As a reference management package, we assume the use of inorganic N (nitrate), conventional tillage and full irrigation. For this reference, the grey WF at a usual N application rate of 300 kg N ha−1 (with crop yield of 11.1 t ha−1) is 1100 m3 t−1, which can be reduced by 91 % towards 95 m3 t−1 when the N application rate is reduced to 50 kg N ha−1 (with a yield of 3.7 t ha−1). The grey WF can be further reduced to 75 m3 t−1 by shifting the management package to manure N and deficit irrigation (with crop yield of 3.5 t ha−1). Although water pollution can thus be reduced dramatically, this comes together with a great yield reduction, and a much lower water productivity (larger green plus blue WF) as well. The overall (green, blue and grey) WF per tonne is found to be minimal at an N application rate of 150 kg N ha−1, with manure, no-tillage and deficit irrigation (with crop yield of 9.3 t ha−1). The paper shows that there is a trade-off between grey WF and crop yield, as well as a trade-off between reducing water pollution (grey WF) and water consumption (green and blue WF). Applying manure instead of inorganic N and deficit instead of full irrigation are measures that reduce both water pollution and water consumption with a 16 % loss in yield.
Citation: Chukalla, A. D., Krol, M. S., and Hoekstra, A. Y.: Grey water footprint reduction in irrigated crop production: effect of nitrogen application rate, nitrogen form, tillage practice and irrigation strategy, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 3245-3259, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-22-3245-2018, 2018.
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This paper provides the first detailed and comprehensive study regarding the potential for reducing the grey WF of crop production by changing management practice such as the nitrogen application rate, nitrogen form (inorganic N or manure N), tillage practice and irrigation strategy. The paper shows that although water pollution (grey WF) can be reduced dramatically, this comes together with a great yield reduction.
This paper provides the first detailed and comprehensive study regarding the potential for...
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