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HESS | Articles | Volume 23, issue 1
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 557-572, 2019
https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-23-557-2019
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 557-572, 2019
https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-23-557-2019
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Research article 30 Jan 2019

Research article | 30 Jan 2019

Assessment of food trade impacts on water, food, and land security in the MENA region

Sang-Hyun Lee et al.
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Cited articles  
Abahussain, A. A., Abdu, A. S., Al-Zubari, W. K., El-Deen, N. A., and Abdul-Raheem, M.: Desertification in the Arab Region: analysis of current status and trends, J. Arid Environ., 51, 521–545, 2002. 
Aldaya, M. M., Allan, J. A., and Hoekstra, A. Y.: Strategic importance of green water in international crop trade, Ecol. Econo., 69, 887–894, 2010. 
Allan, J.: Fortunately there are substitutes for water otherwise our hydro-political futures would be impossible, in: Priorities for water resources allocation and management, ODA, London, 13–26, 1993. 
Antonelli, M., Laio, F., and Tamea, S.: Food security and VWT in the Middle East and North Africa, Int. J. Water Resour. Dev., 31, 326–342, 2015. 
Bazilian, M., Rogner, H., Howells, M., Hermann, S., Arent, D., Gielen, D., Steduto, P., Mueller, A., Komor, P., Tol, R. S. J., and, Yumkella, K. K.: Considering the energy, water and food nexus: Towards an integrated modelling approach, Energ. Policy, 39, 7896–7906, 2011. 
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In this study, we quantified the holistic impacts of food trade on food security and water–land savings and revealed that the MENA region saved significant amounts of national water and land based on the import of barley, maize, rice, and wheat within the period from 2000 to 2012. In addition, the MENA region focused more on increasing the volume of virtual water imported during the period 2006–2012, yet little attention was paid to the expansion of connections with country exporters.
In this study, we quantified the holistic impacts of food trade on food security and water–land...
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